Thursday, November 05, 2015

Byron in Albania

In 1809, Lord Byron arrived in Albania. As I've just visited Albania myself - where I kept coming across him - I thought you might enjoy a post about Byron's time there.

Lord Byron in Albanian costume by Thomas Phillips, 1814.

Albania, at the time of Byron’s visit, was part of an ailing Ottoman Empire. In theory, Albania was ruled by the Sultan; in practice, much of it was ruled by a ferocious and able brigand leader who later became known to history as Ali Pasha (1740-1822). The Sultan, forced to recognise Ali’s diplomatic and administrative abilities, as well as his military prowess, persuaded him to abandon brigandage and serve the Ottoman Empire instead. Ali did so to great effect and was rewarded in 1787 by being appointed Pasha. In theory, he was under the Sultan but, in practice, he extended his Albanian territory considerably to include much of northern Greece and ruled it more or less as an independent territory.    

Ali Pasha reclining in a boat

Ali developed his own independent relations with Europe, initially with Napoleon, but his main interest was the extension of his own power, in particular, establishing a strong Mediterranean sea presence. When he discovered, in 1807, that Napoleon was discussing plans with the Tsar to dismantle the Ottoman Empire, Ali switched sides and made overtures to the British.

In 1809, Byron left England for the continent on what he called a ‘pilgrimage’. In effect, it was a Grand Tour, taking in Portugal, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and Greece, and it seems to have involved a lot of drinking, sex and scenery. In September, he arrived in Albania and headed straight for the court of Ali Pasha in Tepelene. He was twenty-one and Ali Pasha was sixty-nine.

View over the River Vjosa

Bryon was impressed by the scenery. In a letter to his mother, he called it: ‘a country of the most picturesque beauty’. His travels inspired Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, the narrative poem which made his name as a poet, where his hero visits various countries and has adventures.

Here, Childe Harold describes the mountains in Albania:

Here roams the wolf, the eagle whets his beak,
Birds, beasts of prey, and wilder men appear,
And gathering storms convulse the closing year.

Wolves, bears and eagles are still found in the mountains.

Byron was even more impressed by the Pasha’s court. He wrote: ‘The Albanians in their dresses (the most magnificent in the world, consisting of a long white kilt, gold-worked cloak, crimson-velvet gold-laced jacket and waistcoat, silver-mounted pistols and daggers,) the Tartars with their high caps, the Turks in their vast pelisses and turbans, the soldiers and black slaves with the horses,…. The kettle-drums beating, boys calling the hour from the minaret of the mosque… formed a new and delightful spectacle to a stranger.’

He acquired an Albanian costume and wore it for his 1814 portrait by Thomas Phillips (see above), now in the National Portrait Gallery. And one must admit that he looks spectacular in it.

The Castle of Berat

Ali Pasha could not initially see Byron: he was besieging the castle of Berat. Perched on a precipitous crag, Berat is not a place to be besieged lightly, as you can see. 

View looking down from the castle of Berat.

When Ali Pasha returned, he received Byron with great honour in ‘a large room paved with marble; a fountain was playing in the centre; the apartment was surrounded by scarlet ottomans.’  Britain was now Ali’s ally and he may have viewed a visit by a British aristocrat as a compliment.  

Byron appreciated all that Ali Pasha did for him: offering him accommodation, servants, etc. and loading him with ‘almonds and sugared sherbet, fruit and sweetmeats.’  But he did not ignore his host’s other, darker side. As he wrote to his mother:

His highness is sixty years old, very fat and not tall, but with a fine face, light blue eyes and a white beard; his manner is very kind and at the same time he possesses that dignity which is universal among the Turks. He has the appearance of anything but his real character; for he is a remorseless tyrant, guilty of the most horrible cruelties, very brave, and so good a general that they call him the Mohametan Buonaparte.

Gjiokastra castle dominating the town.

At nearby Gjirokastra, another ancient castle substantially re-fortified by Ali Pasha in 1811, I came across Lord Byron again. There is a portrait of him in the castle but, alas, it is so dark with ancient varnish that it was impossible to photograph – but it is clear that Albania has not forgotten his visit.  

Ali Pasha spared no expense to make the castle impregnable as the huge vaulted rooms attest. It is built to withstand a siege with its huge water cistern, bread ovens, and bristling with weaponry.

Vaulted room, Gjirokastra Castle

Gjirokastra is a World Heritage site, not only for the castle but also for the unique series of late Ottoman houses that climb precipitously up the hillside. 

Ottoman house, Gjirokastra, built in 1811

We visited a typical wealthy Ottoman merchants’ house, built in 1811 by the Zekate family (who still live there). The reception room (men only) had a beautifully painted fireplace and elegantly carved wooden ceiling. There were divans skirting the room for guests, though not, alas, in scarlet. Women had their own quarters.

Fireplace in reception room.

Byron, in Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage has his hero come to the Pasha’s court and comments on women’s positon thus:

Here woman’s voice is never heard: apart
And scarce permitted, guarded, veiled, to move,
She yields to one her person and her heart,
Tamed to her cage, nor feels a wish to rove…

A view very convenient for men! Would the ladies of the harem have agreed, I wonder.

View from the castle of Gjirokastra

But Byron’s ‘pilgrimage’ was more than just an adventure and he wasn’t just a dilettante aristocrat traveller. He was honing his skills as a poet and working on Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage. (‘Childe’ is a young man of noble birth.) Harold is a young melancholy but defiant outcast with nameless sins in his past, traveling to distract himself. The first two cantos, which cover his Albanian travels, came out in 1812, and brilliantly depict the places, characters and events Byron saw. It also made his name as a poet. As Byron put it: ‘I awoke one morning and found myself famous.’  The rest is history.

Elizabeth Hawksley

Photo: Lord Byron by Thomas Phillips, courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery

Elizabeth travelled to Albania with Andante Travels:


Melinda Hammond/Sarah Mallory said...

What a great post, Elizabeth, thank you! And the idea that Byron's tour was mainly "drinking, sex and scenery..." not much had changed for young Brits abroad, then!

Do you think Byron remembered this trip when he decided to go to Greece to fight?

Elizabeth Hawksley said...

Yes, I think Byron must have remembered his earlier trip. He left Albania via northern Greece - also of course part of the Ottoman Empire. His first-hand knowledge of the brutal authoritarianism with which Ali Pasha ruled must have informed his decision to fight for Greek independence. Ali was executed by the Sultan in 1822 because the Sultan wanted his empire under his personal control - and I don't suppose he was any more sympathetic of his Greek subjects wanting their independence.

Joana Starnes said...

A wonderful post, Elizabeth! So fascinating, his life and exploits! There was a documentary several years ago, where Rupert Everett travelled in his footsteps, and there was a depressing image of the Castle of Berat (I think), with the entrance almost blocked up by a massive pile of plastic bottles and other debris. What a difference to Ali Pasha's and Lord Byron's times. So glad that things have changed by the time of your photo.

Elizabeth Bailey said...

What a fab post, Elizabeth. So much enjoyed the pics, the history and especially your wry comment on the possible opinions of the women of the harem! Made me hoot. Possibly not actually a harem, but merely ladies of Ali Pasha's court.

Just what you'd expect from Byron, but one can't wonder at it that he did wake up and find himself famous. Such beautiful lines. You've inspired me to seek out Childe Harold's Pilgrimage which I've never read, though have loved other poetry of his.

Elizabeth Hawksley said...

Thank you for your comment, Joana. Interesting about the documentary - I wish I'd seen it. I get the impression that Albania is changing fast. They want to encourage tourism and they are setting about it in a practical way by building proper roads, having clean water, and generally improving the infrastructure. Cleaning up rubbish is part of that. Albania is a beautiful country with friendly people and they have a lot to offer.

Elizabeth Hawksley said...

Thanks for dropping by, Elizabeth. I'm so pleased you enjoyed it. You can find Childe Harold's Pilgrimage on the Project Gutenberg website and download it for free. Harold's adventures in Albania is in Canto 2.

Beth Elliott said...

Lovely photos in your post. Albania is breathtaking and must have suited Byron's poetic soul perfectly, in addition to the warm welcome he received there. I was touched by the fact that in Tepelena, the main square is now named for him - Sheshi Lord Bajron, with a plaque as well.
I also agree with you about the friendliness of the people.

Elizabeth Hawksley said...

Thank you so much for your comment, Beth. I didn't know that the main square in Tepelena is named after Lord Bryon - we didn't have time to visit it. I'm thrilled to learn that he's not forgotten there. And a plaque, too!

I really enjoyed my holiday in Albania, and it sounds as if you did, too!

Prem said...

This makes riveting reading, and your photographs are the film version of the mot juste. I know very little about Albania, and your post allowed me to have a little taste of its history, it's culture, and it's place in nineteenth century history.

Elizabeth Hawksley said...

Thanks, Prem, I'm delighted you enjoyed my post. One thing Albania has in abundance - besides spectacular scenery and friendly people - is History. They have suffered endless invasions: Romans, Turks, Italians, Germans and then suffered under a brutally repressive Communist regime. It is only since the late 1990s that they have been able to choose for themselves what sort of country they want, and they have chosen Democracy.

I have great respect for them and wish them well.

aurora raby said...

Absolutely he did. It was by way of some atonement for what had transpired between him and Ali Pasha.

Unknown said...

The position the western world took towards Albania never ceases to negatively impress me .
From the beginning of Ottoman conquest during SkenderBeg times, Albanians were the only ones to successfully fight them off in Albanian territories and abroad .
Albanians were also constantly asking for cooperation from Italy and other parts of Europe, to end the Ottoman Empire.
The story was always the same, they would be forced into serving the Ottomans and then they would revolt and defy and attempt to put an end to it, many times in openly in the name of Europe and of course national pride.
Another example would be Mehmet Ali Albani, which became the ruler of Egypt , turned it into an African superpower , with an economy and military similar to western countries and promoted education for females .
Waged a destructive war against Ottomans and when he was at the gates of Istanbul , western Europeans threatened to intervene and he backed off.
What you fail to recognize is also that that Greek revolution was orchestrated and in most cases lead by Albanians .
Even the last Albanian war against Ottomans which was won by Albanians only to be conquered by Serbs and Montenegrins was completely ignored by the western powers, and in fact betrayed in the Berlin congress.
Now of course, the western world thinks Albanians are practically savages and they were savages in the past many of which did not even believe that the Albanian language was an Indo-European language, potentially the oldest one .
I apologize for my bad English, with this comment I wish to have successfully made the point that Albanians have a glorious past and their contributions to Europe are wast . Their love for western countries is apparent even throughout the worst times they went through .

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Unknown said...

Respect and thank you for your kind word...

Unknown said...

Politely allow me to add the Slav invasion, 3/4 of Albanians have been left outside of the current recognized Albania. Russians with the help of the French lobbyed against the Albanian independent state and in favour of a Slavic Kingdom convincing the British to not consider an Albanian recognition. It will be remebered that the American President backed by Austrians and Germans saved the legitimacy of the Albanian independence with only 1/4 of the land that the majority of Albanians populated. The Kingdom of Serbs and Greece were the most profitable parties to conquer Albanian populated lands and colonize those areas with Slavic and Greek colonials! Albanians in Northern Greece, Central and South Serbia including those in Southeast and Southwest Montenegro, also Albanians in Northern Macedonia are a living history truth that reminds Europeans how devided they are!